Ancient Egyptian Astronomy

Tutankhamun mask

The following web site gathers together various articles on ancient Egyptian astronomical lore.  Our primary focus is on the astral traditions included in the Pyramid Texts, the oldest body of religious texts to survive from antiquity. As is evident from the extensive literature on the subject, the identification of the various celestial bodies described in the Pyramid Texts is subject to much controversy. Authorities rarely agree on the identifications in question and, where agreement is found, there are grave problems with virtually every solution proposed.  There are several reasons for this situation, not the least of which is the relative obscurity of the language employed in the texts themselves.  Equally important is the fact that astronomy did not yet exist as a science at the time the Pyramid Texts were composed and thus systematic observations and scientifically rigorous descriptions of the various celestial bodies and constellations are not to be found during this early period in Egypt.

In order to achieve a proper understanding of the Egyptian traditions, it is instructive to compare them with the astral traditions from Mesopotamia and elsewhere. Cross-cultural comparisons of this sort readily reveal common patterns and thus point towards more reliable identifications and insights into the nature of the Egyptian cosmos. It is our opinion that the patterns in question are most logically explained as resulting from common astronomical observations.  For a detailed analysis of the Egyptian astral traditions, please click on one of the following links: